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Explain how modern managers apply the scientific management principles at the workplace

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Question 1(a) Describe Frederick Taylor?s principles of scientific management.(10 marks)(b) Explain how modern managers apply the scientific management principles at the workplace.(15 marks)Question 2(a) Describe the assumptions upon which the rational decision-making model is based.(15 marks)(b) Explain the limitations of the rational decision-making model.(10 marks)Question 3The excerpt below refers to the recent case of contaminated infant milk powder found in some stores in Johor.Merchant association: Low-quality milk powder passed off as branded infant formulaPosted on 12 December 2017www.thesundaily.comThe Federation of Sundry Goods Merchants Association of Malaysia president Hong Chee Meng believes the culprits behind the counterfeit version of Enfalac A+ Step 1 infant formula milk powder sold in Johor have mixed powdered milk for baking with the genuine product to reap profits.He urged federation members not to compromise good business ethics when sourcing their infant formulas, China Press reported today. Meanwhile, Mead Johnson Malaysia said it is conducting a sweep of retail stores in Johor to trace and confiscate counterfeit versions of its infant formula Enfalac A+ Step 1 (1.8kg boxes)(a) With reference to the excerpt above, discuss why sometimes such unethical practices take place.(10 marks)(b) What can managers do to ensure that basic ethical principles are followed when making business decisions?(15 marks)Question 4:Read the case below and answer the questions that follow.Project Oxygen in GoogleWhen Google decided to “build a better boss”, it studied data from performance reviews, feedback surveys and also supporting documents submitted by individuals who had been nominated for top-manager awards. The project, named as Project Oxygen examined 100 variables and identified eight characteristics or habits of Google?s most effective managers. The eight characteristics are listed as follows:? Be a good coach (provide specific feedback and have regular meetings with employees)? Empower your team and don?t micro-manage (give chance to employees to solve problems themselves, but be available to offer advise)? Be interested in your team members? success and well-being (make new team members feel welcome and get to know your employees)? Be productive and results- oriented (focus on helping the team achieve its goals by prioritizing work and getting rid of obstacles)? Be a good communicator and listen to your team (learn to listen and to share information; encourage open dialogue and pay attention to the team?s concerns)? Help your employees with career development (take notice of employees? efforts so they can see how their hard work is furthering their careers; appreciate employees? efforts)? Have a clear vision and strategy for the team (lead the team but keep everyone involved in developing and achieving the team?s vision)? Have technical skills so that you can advise the team (understand the challenges facing the team and be able to help team members solve problems)Now, managers at Google know what being a great manager involves. Google started training managers as well as providing individual coaching and performance review sessions.(Source: adapted from Robbins. S and M. Coulter, „Management?, 12th edition, (2014), Pearson Education Ltd, pg 49)(a) Describe the findings of Project Oxygen using:(i) The management functions approach (8 marks)(ii) Mintzberg?s roles approach (6 marks)(iii) The skills approach (6 marks)4(b) Choose one (1) of the eight characteristics listed in the case study and describe how you could apply it in an organisation that you are familiar with.(5 marks)