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Endocrine System: The Hypothalamic–Pituitary Axis

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Interactive Physiology Worksheet:

Endocrine System: The Hypothalamic–Pituitary Axis

1. The anterior pituitary is composed of _____________________ tissue. Name the six classic

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hormones whose functions are well known.

1. _______________________________________________________

2. _______________________________________________________

3. _______________________________________________________

4. _______________________________________________________

5. _______________________________________________________

6. _______________________________________________________

2. TRH, GNRH, CRH, etc., are known as ________________________ hypothalamic hormones that

regulate the function of the ________________ pituitary. These hormones are released into

capillary beds and carried directly to the pituitary by the _________________ ______________

_______________, located in the _________________________.

3. ____________________ and ____________________, the posterior pituitary hormones, are

synthesized in the ________________ and ______________________ nuclei of the

hypothalamus. They are stored in the axon terminals located in the _______________ pituitary.

Similar to neurotransmitters, a/an ____________ ________________ in the neuron causes their


4. In negative feedback, the target hormone feeds back to alter the release of the anterior or

hypothalamic hormones, thus _______________________ its own release.

5. Give an example of a hormone that has negative feedback mainly to the anterior pituitary.


Give an example of a hormone that has negative feedback to both the anterior pituitary and the

ventral hypothalamus. ___________________________________________________________

6. Prolactin is unique in that the main ventral hypothalamic hormone regulating its secretion,

______________________________, inhibits its release. _______________________ (hormone)

increases prolactin release. Very high levels of this hormone during pregnancy actually block the

effect of prolactin on milk production.

Page 1 of 2 BIO1014 Anatomy and Physiology II Lab

© 2013 South University

7. _______________________ hormones are necessary for the release of ____________________

hormone. This is an example of modulation of a hormone by a target hormone of another series.

8. Suckling of an infant causes milk letdown by stimulating what hormone? ___________________

Changes in osmolarity detected by chemically sensitive neurons in the hypothalamus will alter

what hormone’s level? __________________________________

9. Cortisol release is synchronized by the light/dark cycle and has a 24-hour pattern of secretion

known as a ____________________________ rhythm. Levels are highest at what part of the

day? ________________________________

10. Besides controlling levels of T3 and T4, TSH also promotes ______________________ of the

thyroid gland. T3 and T4 are carried in the bloodstream bound to ______________ ___________

because they are ___________________________ .

11. T3 and T4 enter the target cells by _____________________ and bind to receptors located

_______________________________. T3 and T4 are synthesized from ________________ and


12. Which of the following would be symptoms of hypothyroidism, also known as







13. Lack of dietary iodine would cause _______________________ hypothyroidism and the patient

would probably get an iodine-deficient _________________________.

14. Graves’ disease is the most common cause of primary __________________________. The body

secretes ________________ _______________ _____________________, which mimics the

action of TSH and thus may cause a ______________________ as well as high levels of thyroid


Page 2 of 2 BIO1014 Anatomy and Physiology II Lab